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Scientific management and science of management

Page history last edited by Liam James 3 years, 1 month ago

Emergence and development of scientific management and science of management


Human resources organizations and management


Scientific management and management science initiated the modern management of human resources organizations and management.


History of Management and the Science of Management


In 1967, Herbert Hicks proposed a periodization that, for a period, played the role of classifying schools in the science of management:


  1. Training period in management development - until 1880
  2. Scientific Management (Classical School) from 1880 to 1930.
  3. The period of human relations from 1930 to 1950
  4. Modern stage from 1950 to the present day.


We also include modern human resource management and project and team management.


The objective prerequisites for the emergence of management during the so-called pre-scientific period is the need for division of labor and the emergence of property. A major feature of management during this period is the paternalism inherent in:


  • Merger of ownership and management; 
  • Family relations between participants; 
  • Personal devotion; 
  • Economic dependence on the owner; 
  • The will of the owner is a criterion for the correctness of the decisions


The forerunner of the scientific approach to management during this early stage of its development may be the name of Robert Owen (1771-1858).


Taylor's teachings from the beginning of the twentieth century laid the foundations of the so-called classical school in scientific management


Chronologically, this coincides with the so-called era of mass production in the development of capitalism The Classical School, characterized by the pursuit of rationalism in solving managerial problems. People in this organizational mechanism is seen as a productive resource, among other resources.


The systems are relatively closed and relatively independent of the slowly changing external environment. In the 1930s another direction emerged, which took as its motto the humanization and socialization of management. It pays particular attention to the human factor for increasing labor productivity and the efficiency of human activity as a whole. Because of this emphasis on the human being, it is called the School of Human Relations.


The School of Human Relations criticizes the classical school for unjustifiably neglecting the human factor, leading to a near-complete denial of its formulations. With the advent of human resources, not just a new era comes, but a new approach in the development of scientific management. Reference: Strategy and priorities in the development of human resources. According to the periodization of H. Hicks, the time after the 1950s became part of a common block, called the modern stage. But due to the continuous development of the science and practice of management, the formulation of the present-day stage, dating from 1967, very quickly loses its meaning.


The days after 1967 are turning out to be days of rapid and ever-accelerating development in a number of key areas of science and technology.


  • cybernetics;
  • systematic analysis;
  • quantitative methods;
  • speed and memory of computers;
  • unlimited external memory;
  • humanized software products;
  • local and global networks;


In the second half of the twentieth century, the endeavor was already to overcome the contradictions between these schools and to reconcile their positive results. Characteristic of this new approach is pragmatism, the desire on the basis of everything achieved by both schools to help increase the results of real business. In some cases, an eclectic reconciliation of contradictory ideas is reached, with theoretical purity being sacrificed to pragmatism. Contemporary literature does not usually follow a purely chronological approach, and the solution to this problem is complemented by a meaningful one. This leads to a wide variety of concepts and it is practically impossible to describe them in a comprehensive way. Along with the Classical School and the School of Human Relations, the following points out:


  • Empirical,
  • Behavioral,
  • Decision School,
  • School for Social Systems and more.


Therefore, in the following we will focus only on the principal representatives of the two schools and some representatives of the so-called An empirical school.


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